Marketing Glossary A

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ABC1C2DE
National Readership Survey terms to define reading demographic groups ie: A = Upper middle class, higher managerial, administrative or professional.

Abortion
A product with a low market share of a new market.

Above the Line
Advertising for which a payment is made and for which commission is paid to the advertising agency. See also ‘below the line’ and ‘push versus pull promotion’

Accompanied Shopping
A specialised type of interview in which respondents are interviewed while they shop in a retail store. The interview technique combines questioning and observations.

Account Management
The process by which an agency or supplier manages the needs of a client.

Accredited Programmes
Modular study that is assessed by exam or by project based assignments towards achieving a qualification

ACORN
A Classification Of Residential Neighbourhoods: a database which divides up the entire population of the UK in terms of the type of housing in which they live.

Added Value
The increase in worth of a product or service as a result of a particular activity – in the context of marketing, the activity might be packaging or branding.

Adopter Categories
Five groups into which consumers can be placed according to the time it takes them to adopt a new product or service. The five categories are:
Innovators – Those who are first to adopt a new product or service.
Early adopters – Those who adopt a new product or service after the innovators have already adopted it.
Early majority – Those who adopt just before the ‘average’ person.
Late majority – Those who eventually adopt through economic necessity or social pressure.
Laggards – Those who are last to adopt a new product or service.

ADSL
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Technology that allows data to be transmitted over copper pair telephone lines at up to 8 Mbps. The technology allows internet access and telephony services to be available simultaneously.

Advertising
Promotion of a product, service, or message by an identified sponsor using paid-for media.

Advertising Cost Equivalent (ACE)
See ‘Advertising Value Equivalent’.

Advertising Space Equivalent (ASE)
See ‘Advertising Value Equivalent’.

Advertising Value Equivalent (AVE)
A commonly used PR measurement of the value of the space secured by PR executives had they bought that equivalent amount of space in advertising.

Advertorial
An advertisement which is designed to have the appearance of an editorial. Advertorials are normally labelled as “Advertising” or “This is an advertisement”. Similar in practice to an infomercial.

Advocacy Advertising
Advocacy advertising expresses a viewpoint on a given issue, often on behalf of an institution. Examples are to be found in anti-Drink-Driving campaigns.

Adware
Free software which includes pop-up banner advertisements which cannot be dismissed. See ‘Banner Averts’ and ‘Pop-up’.

Affiliate Marketing
A form of marketing or advertising used on the internet. Companies that sell products or services online link to relevant sites. The advertising on the other or ‘affiliate’ sites is paid for according to results.

Affinity Marketing
Marketing targeted at individuals sharing common interests that predispose them towards a product, e.g. an auto accessories manufacturer targeting motoring magazine readers. Also, a campaign jointly sponsored by a number of disparate organisations that are non-competitive but have a particular interest in common.

After Sales Service
Services received after the original goods or service have been paid for.

AIDA
Attention, Interest, Desire, Action: a model describing the process that advertising or promotion is intended to initiate in the mind of a prospective customer.

AIUAPR
Awareness, Interest, Understanding, Attitudes, Purchase, Repeat purchase: a buying decision model.

Ambient Media
Originally known as ‘fringe media’, ambient media are communications platforms that surround us in everyday life – from petrol pump advertising to advertising projected onto buildings to advertising on theatre tickets, cricket pitches or even pay slips. See also ‘buzz’.

Ambush Marketing
A deliberate attempt by an organisation to associate itself with an event (often a sporting event) in order to gain some of the benefits associated with being an official sponsor without incurring the costs of sponsorship. For example by advertising during broadcasts of the event. See also ‘buzz’

Analytical Hierachy Process (AHP)
A mathematical decision making technique that allows consideration of both qualitative and quantitative aspects of decisions. It reduces complex decisions to a series of one-on-one comparisons, then synthesises the results.

Ansoff Matrix
Model relating marketing strategy to general strategic direction. It maps product-market strategies – e.g. market penetration, product development, market development and diversification – on a matrix showing new versus existing products along one axis and new versus existing markets along the other.

Asset Led Marketing
Asset led marketing uses product strengths such as the name and brand image to market both new and existing products. Marketing decisions are based on the needs of the consumer AND the assets of the product.

Assignments
An assessed work based project report. Assignments are part of the assessment procedure when studying for a qualification

Avatar
An animated or graphic character, cartoon or picture used to represent an individual in a game, chat room or website.